I had a great time performing and teaching on my September '16 whirlwind through the DFW metroplex. Stops included Eastfield College, Texas A&M Commerce, Tarrant County College SE Campus and the University of North Texas. It was so great to catch up with schoolmates from UNT, former students, and to play some wonderful music from my new CD, The American Album. Recital selections included Gaubert's Madrigal, Milhaud's Scaramouche (stolen straight from the saxophone repertoire, no less), Daniel Dorff's Sonata (Three Lakes) and Cantible et Presto by Georges Enesco. Thanks to Laura Maxwell for your wonderful collaborative piano work and to Julee Kim-Walker, Oscar Passley, Greg Dewhirst and Mary Karen Clardy for hosting me! Please enjoy this live track:
I was recently teaching a masterclass and afterward, a brave young student asked about slowing down finger technique. There is so much attention paid to the topic of speeding up slow finger technique, but there are also those students who seem to have the opposite issue: their fingers move so fast that they can’t control them. Just like people who are left-handed in a right-handed world, these students feel so much frustration because most advice and exercises take the wrong approach. Here is a handy guide for evening out wild technique.
Finger Dexterity is a Plus…
…once you learn how to maneuver it. Don’t feel discouraged because your friends and colleagues seem different. Watch this video of Denis Bouriakov, there’s no limit to what you can do once you get your wild fingers under control: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syUwtHlON-0
Always hear every note in your head before you play it. To practice this, try first singing the pattern and then playing it. Experiment with singing part of the pattern and then playing part.
Change the beat emphasis with your metronome. Instead of imagining that the metronome is clicking on the beats, practice imagining the metronome is clicking between the beats. Do this slowly at first, it is quite challenging!
Add rests. Keep the fingers as precise as possible, but add rests to check up on the other notes.
Add fermatas. Listen for a beautiful sustained note, and then continue with the metronome.
One of the biggest concerns for all flutists is, without a doubt, creating a beautiful tone. There is a great deal of mystery and wondering, there are long-held arguments between different camps, and all of this has led to a general state of confusion. Students often come to me with a great deal of trepidation and worry about their own tone and ask for advice on how to improve it. I worried a lot when I was a student and did a lot of exploration, and when it comes down to it, there are certain inescapable principles that must govern flute playing...these principles are rooted within the laws of physics and acoustics. Once we learn to navigate within these predetermined and fundamental truths, we begin to work with the instrument instead of struggle against it.
How is Tone Created?
Flute tone is created by blowing on a sharp edge causing the air inside the tube to vibrate due to the build-up of air pressure. The air inside the tube gains air pressure, and the air outside the tube remains at a lower pressure. This difference in air pressure is unstable and the vibrating air has no choice but to escape the tube at the first possible point. The longer the tube, the slower the frequency of vibration, and that is why we put more fingers down for low notes, and fewer for high note (or push in if we are flat and pull out if we are sharp.)
The Importance of Your Air Stream
Without getting lost in a sea of details, we must ensure that we have a good air stream. The creation of tone is governed by two important variables: Speed and Flow. When you are practicing, your goal is to find the optimal combination of air speed and steady air pressure. The air column originates deep inside our body and travels through the flute and into the world to the point that the air pressure equalizes. Air molecules are set into vibration at the point where the air strikes the lip plate, and once that happens the entire column will vibrate - including that which is inside of the lips.
Create a funnel shape inside your mouth. Do this by relaxing the base of the tongue, opening up the teeth, and allowing the soft palate to rise naturally. When you take in a big breath and fill your mouth with air while in this position, the air speed will be forced to increase as it approaches the embouchure. The embouchure is the smallest point of the funnel, so it must be engaged create a fast air stream.
Point the tip of your tongue toward the small opening. The tongue acts as a wick, allowing the air to travel on it from deep inside your body to the outside world. This allows the funnel to stay intact and keeps the back of the tongue from disrupting the airflow.
Allow the base of the tongue to relax and lay flat. The base of the tongue should be in a neutral resting position. This area of the body must remain neutral and allow air to flow from low in the body.
Take in a full breath and send the air through your flute. Notice that this position requires more air, as you have created a larger resonating cavity. Think of this like yoga for the flute, you have just become more flexible and you must now fill up a bigger space with air than previously. Remember to take in a bigger and more relaxed breath to optimize your tone!
I was working with a student on his upcoming recital and we had a great discussion on listening. So many musicians have a hard time listening to their own recordings; one of the most difficult lessons that a performer must learn is to address our own playing as it really is and not as we want it to be. I would like to suggest this simple technique to help guide the performer through this very important process. That technique is to listen in layers.
The first step is to turn of the performer’s ears and engage the editor’s ears. Think of yourself as a creative writer. When writing a great poem or essay, the first step is to put the ideas on paper, for a performer that is the act of performing. Perform for yourself in your practice space and document the event with a video or audio recorder. Once the performance is concluded, and you go back to listen to your recording, acknowledge that you are no longer the performer, you are now the editor. When you are in the editing phase, listen in layers and use a rubric to guide your critique. I am including a sample rubric, feel free to use or adapt it to your own needs.
Layer One: Time
Am I playing with an accurate sense of pulse? When does my pulse lose integrity and when it does, what is the cause? Am I playing the rhythms on the page accurately? Are there certain rhythmic patterns that I tend to play inaccurately?
Layer Two: Pitch
When am I playing out of tune? Is it on certain notes? Is it at a certain point in the phrase? Is it related to the dynamics or articulations?
Layer Three: Technique
Am I playing the correct notes? When I am not playing the correct note what is the cause? Am I hearing the right notes in my head? Is my hand position and posture helping me maximize my technique?
Layer Four: Breathing
Are my breaths full and relaxed? Am I following my breathing plan?
Layer Five: Phrasing
Have I identified where the phrases are in the music? Am I conveying that to the audience? Are problems with the other layers of music detracting from my concept of phrase?
Layer Six: Dynamics
Am I playing the dynamics on the page and can that be heard on the recording? Is my attempt to play with dynamic contrast causing other layers to go haywire?
Layer Seven: Vibrato
How does my vibrato fit the character of the music? Does it enhance or detract from the music? Is it appropriate to the style and mood of that moment? Does it engage the listener and enhance projection?
Layer Eight: Articulation
Am I playing the correct articulations? Do the articulations match the style and mood of the moment? Is the articulation aiding in tonal clarity, projection and stylistic understanding?
Layer Nine: Tone Quality
Is the tone appropriate to the style and mood of the moment? Does the tone quality remain static or is it varied? Is the core sound pleasing to the ear?
Layer Ten: Style and Interpretation
Does the interpretation show an understanding of stylistic practices specific to the time period, geographical location, and language of the particular composer?
There's no doubt that Taffanel and Gaubert's technique book 17 Grands Exercices Journaliers de Mécanisme pour Flûte has been a staple in flutists' practice routines since its inception. These exercises provide flutists with a thoughtful and methodical approach to conquering technique. One of my favorite exercises in the book is EJ4. It succinctly works the flutist through the major and minor scales in a progression that is both musical and mechanical. However, many young students struggle with getting started with this exercise. Here's a simple approach to getting started with this exercise, enjoy!
Before you get started with the actual exercise, familiarize yourself with the major and minor scales in all three forms. Get used to playing them over the full range of your instrument, not only from the tonic-up-and-back.
Step One: Majors
Practice all of the major scales in the exercise. Start with the first seven measures plus the first note of the eighth measure. Skip ahead to measure 17-24 and so forth. Hint: look for the double bar and key change, that is the start of the next major key area. Get these really good and memorize them! Work up the tempo until you can do it in one or two breaths.
Step Two: Minors
Practice all of the minors following the same procedure as in step one. Before you start the first minor key, analyze the pattern. When is it harmonic minor? When is it melodic minor? This pattern holds true for every minor scale, so learn it well in the first key area and then apply that knowledge to the less familiar key areas. Memorize them!
Step Three: Transitions
Practice all transitions. First practice the transitions from major to minor as a unit. This would be measure 8 to the downbeat of 9, 24 to the downbeat of 25, and so on. Learn how they work and memorize the pattern, from there you will be able to play the notes! Follow the same procedure for the transitions of minor to major (measure 16 to the down beat of 17, and so on.) Memorize this!
Step Four: Putting It All Together
Now that you can do each individual skill, practice them in units. Start with one major and minor key area, and then add more until you can play through the entire exercise. This step is more about mental training and focus than it is about learning the actual notes. Remember, you have already done all the heavy lifting, now all you have to do is maintain through consistent and committed practicing. Celebrate your achievement! You now have the entire exercise memorized and you are ready to go on to the scale game!
Fostering a systematic approach to learning music is of the most valuable lessons that etude study provides the developing student. This overarching idea is more important than the set of concepts presented within a single etude, the maturity and sophistication of the student's approach determines how quickly he or she can improve in every facet of playing, from technical to musical to tone development. For this reason, it is worthwhile to spend the time developing an approach that works for you. In this blog, I will present a strategy that I have found to be very helpful personally and in my own studio. For this blog, I will use Andersen's Etude No. 8 in f# minor, Opus 41. You can find the entire book here: http://imslp.org/wiki/18_Etudes_for_Flute,_Op.41_(Andersen,_Joachim)
Take a Look at the Big Picture
Take a moment to look through the entire etude. Sing through it in your head and make note of the form and phrasing. Label the repetitions and breath marks. I like to use symbols to remind myself of the form, like a star or bracket. If the piece has a more sophisticated form, I may use letters or descriptions, such as "love theme in A major". Here is an example of the Andersen No. 8/41 with these ideas highlighted.
Note that the opening material is presented four times, which makes up 50% of the entire etude! I have selected breath marks that highlight my initial intreptation of the phrasing, these could change as I practice the piece.
I tell my students to choose a hard measure, tackle it, and then work backwards. When we read through a piece of music, it feels like it is getting more and more difficult and increasingly foreign until we finally reach the summit of the musical mountain. Underlying chord progressions, the need for variety, and our own concentration and endurance all contribute to that feeling. A simple solution is to isolate a single difficult measure, conquer it, and then tack on the preceding measure, so on and so forth, building the piece like a lego house. It works for two reasons: 1. once the difficult measure is conquered, the preceding measure doesn't seem as difficult by comparison, and 2. we are repeating the most difficult passages many times, building confidence in them! Try it on the last measure of the fourth line. Play slowly and accurately several times. Observe the contour of notes, shape the phrase, and build confidence through the awkward double-sharp. Add on the measure before (or even a single note) and repeat several times. Continue the process until you have built up the entire phrase. Now take a deep breath, and play through the entire phrase one time. You will notice immediate improvement!
Smart musicians have a problem; they like to make things complicated. This blog is dedicated to keeping it simple. Keeping that in mind, I'll make it quick!
To create musical flow, we need to focus on asking ourselves one simple question: What is the next note? Follow this simple process to categorize the notes in your mind, think of this as mental "Container Store". Identify the next note, categorize it, and hear it. Why categorize? Putting the notes into categories will reveal information about their musical purpose and structures in a performance-driven manner. Here's a simple diagram for thinking about the next note.
Every musician who has spent a significant amount of time performing from memory can attest to the many benefits of such a pursuit. Some of these surface-level benefits are clear and easy to observe by all musicians and there are other benefits that are more difficult to articulate. In recent years, memory requirements for competitions have become less common, whereas non-memorized concerto performances by wind players have begun to become the norm. There is a growing contingency of musicians who are skeptical about the relevance of memory work in today’s world, many of whom have never had to memorize beyond Suzuki training or marching band, and have written off the possibility of such a huge payoff for something that they may view as little more than a parlor trick.
This blog is designed to encourage the skeptic to consider the many benefits that lay under the surface and to provide some techniques to developing this skill. Whether you are preparing for a competition, audition, or you wish to enrich your practice sessions, keep in mind that once you understand that (like many other elements of practicing) it is a skill, that means that through intelligent work, you can get better at it.
Do I have to?First, let’s discuss the why of memorizing. The act of playing by memory is commonly referred to as “playing by heart”. This endearing term elucidates the purpose of memory work better than any scientific study. To memorize music is to love music so much that you choose to carry it with you everywhere you go! In a recent essay in the New York Times, author Jim Holt discussed the benefits and process to memorizing poetry. In the article, Holt said “The process of memorizing a poem is fairly mechanical at first. You cling to the meter and rhyme scheme (if there is one), declaiming the lines in a sort of sing-songy way without worrying too much about what they mean. But then something organic starts to happen. Mere memorization gives way to performance. You begin to feel the tension between the abstract meter of the poem — the “duh DA duh DA duh DA duh DA duh DA” of iambic pentameter, say — and the rhythms arising from the actual sense of the words.” It is the transformation from tedious mechanical practice to an organic performance that musicians achieve when committing a piece of music to memory.
The development of pattern-based thinking is unavoidable in memory work. Memory work is a form of ear training. When a musician puts a piece to memory, patterns emerge, both visually and aurally. We begin to make broad connections and learn to speak the language of the composer. We develop an understanding of the nuances of a composition, seeing repetition and deviation in melodic and harmonic devices. We see the shape of the piece, and in understanding how the form unfolds in time, we can more easily understand how to execute the individual phrases. The joy of memorizing is the joy of unfolding a paper and discovering a beautiful piece of art underneath the creases. Learning to hear the larger framework of a composition gives balance to technical practice, which requires us to isolate a very limited number of notes.
Removing ObstaclesPerforming without a music stand in front of you allows you to connect directly with your audience. What an exhilarating and terrifying opportunity to share music at a deeper level than before! In the concert hall, this allows the audience direct visual access to the performer. In an ensemble performance, it allows you to keep your eye on the conductor and musicians around you. When you open yourself up to better visual communication while performing and rehearsing you ensure a richer, unrestrained performance. In the practice room, it allows the performer direct visual access to his or herself. The performer can practice in front of the mirror without the hindrance of the music stand. Practicing in front of the mirror teaches the flutist how to be his or her own best teacher. We have an innate understanding of efficient body mechanics and through conscientious self-observation, we will naturally develop posture and hand position that leads to efficient technique.
Memorizing develops concentration. One of the biggest challenges of being a performing musician is learning to deal with distraction. Distraction has origins in both internal and external forms. External distraction, whether it appears as a ringing cell phone, coughing audience members, or a mosquito buzzing at your face, is par for the course. We can’t control it, so we must learn to accept it as part of performing. Internal distraction, an inner narrative, can be much more distracting than any external situation. The mind is a powerful force, but one can overcome the hindrance of the inner monologue through memory work. The internal distraction is much like a stubborn toddler, the best way to deal with it is to keep it busy. The mind gets bored easily, and if you give yourself a challenge, you can learn to overcome internal distraction.
Over Thanksgiving break, I traveled to Medellin and La Ceja, Colombia to work with the flutists at the Sinfónica de Antioquia and La Ceja Banda. Additionally, I performed the Vivaldi Concerto in C major for piccolo, RV 443 with La Ceja Banda and gave a chamber recital with hornist Angela Winter. Angela and I had such a wonderful time teaching, learning about Colombian culture, and meeting some really wonderful new friends. One of my NSU flute students, Nia Foster, joined us on the trip for study abroad, we had so much fun! Here are some photos from our trip!
Here we are overlooking Medellin!
After our recital!
Teaching the students of La Ceja Banda
I was interviewed on the La Ceja news (in español!)
Rehearsing with La Ceja Banda
This past Monday, I had the pleasure of working with a talented group of young composers at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki. These young composers are current students of Dimitris Maronidis, Costas Tsougras, Kostas Siembis and Leontios Hadjileontiadis. I gave a demonstration of many extended techniques, shared some scores and talked about the performer's experience with learning new music. We then had a lovely discussion and I answered questions about the possibilities and even stumbled across a cool new sound in the workshop!
Thank you to the Fulbright Greece program for supporting my teaching and research as a 2013-14 Fulbright Scholar.
Each student wrote a miniature for me, the pieces are lovely! They are so diverse and musical! I purposely did not practice the pieces, but instead sight-read each piece so they could have a glimpse into my working style and my experience (and struggle) with the unpacking and untangling of a new composition. I gave them some advice on how to make the pieces more "user friendly", having to do with readability issues and some solutions to the few line-in-the-sand limitations that I observed. The students will then send me their 2.0 versions; I encouraged them not to change the notes just because I made a mistake in sight-reading. I believe it is important to continue to push the limits of what is (im)possible and challenge the performer.
On June 16th at 9:00 pm at the State Conservatory, I will present a concert of the student's works. I am honored to give a priemere concert of so many fine works and humbled and grateful to have these young composers write for me. This is my last concert before returning home from Thessaloniki, and I couldn't ask for a better close to my Fulbright experience. To the student composers, thank you and I will see you in June!
flutist, writer, traveler, teacher